By Felix Corley
This research is being published to further historical understanding and academic research, not the pursuit of scandal or sensation.
The Soviet Union’s sprawling intelligence, counter-intelligence, security, social monitoring and industrial theft administration – known since 1954 as the State Security Committee (KGB) – had wide tentacles both within the Soviet Union and abroad. At the same time, it was an integral part (and deliberately so) of a Communist Party-ruled state where the Party ultimately had the upper hand.
Armenians – both within the Soviet Union and in the larger diaspora – inevitably had dealings with the KGB, as participants, helpers (willingly or unwillingly), beneficiaries and victims. Despite a number of recent memoirs by former Armenian KGB officers and other officials (some more candid than others) and documentary books on Armenian KGB officers, and the opening of at least some archives, little academic study of the inter-relations between the KGB and Armenians around the world has been undertaken.
My earlier article, Dogging Dashnaks, Dissidents, and Dodgy-Dealers: Armenians and the KGB (Armenian Forum, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2001), was based on the limited KGB documentary evidence available then.
The Mitrokhin Archive
Vasili Mitrokhin (1922-2004) was an archivist for the KGB’s First Chief Directorate (foreign intelligence) in Moscow and, from 1972 until his retirement in 1984, spent much of his time copying down extracts from the FCD’s voluminous files dating back to the founding of the Soviet Union’s first secret police, the Cheka, in 1918. He buried his notes in trunks in the garden of his dacha near Moscow. In 1992, the British Secret Intelligence Service (SIS) took up his offer of the archive and granted Mitrokhin and his family asylum in Britain under assumed names.
Once in Britain, the archive was immediately examined by the SIS and parts of it shared with other Western intelligence services. An academic study of the material was completed by Cambridge intelligence historian Professor Christopher Andrew and Mitrokhin. Two large books were published under the title: The Mitrokhin Archive (Vol. 1: The KGB in Europe and the West, London 1999; Vol. 2: The KGB and the World, London 2005). Mitrokhin also published two further books based on his materials.
In 2012-3, once SIS had finished with the material and in line with his late father’s wishes, Vladimir Mitrokhin lodged the material his father had transcribed and written up with Churchill College, Cambridge University. In July 2014, Mitrokhin’s typed transcripts of his original hand written notes were opened to researchers. Churchill College’s Archives Centre has an online guide to the collection, which uses the reference MITN: http://janus.lib.cam.ac.uk/db/node.xsp?id=EAD%2FGBR%2F0014%2FMITN
The information presented here was collected during a two-day visit to the archive in summer 2015. I am grateful to the archive and the archive staff who were efficient and helpful. I believe I examined most of the available files in that time, but other material of interest on Armenians may exist in files I did not see. Because of limited time, I may also have missed information in the files I did see. I have included here almost all the material present in each of the references. The information presented is translated or summarised from Mitrokhin’s Russian-language transcripts. Any information I have added is in square brackets.
This information was collected as part of my research for a book on the history of the Armenian Church in the Soviet Union. I have not included here Mitrokhin’s notes on the more than 15 Armenian clerics who were or later became Armenian Apostolic bishops who were also KGB agents.
It is important to note that ethnic Armenians – like people of any other nationality or ethnicity – also worked for other intelligence agencies, including those of Western countries, during the Cold War.
How reliable are Mitrokhin’s notes? Clearly, without access to the original files (the KGB FCD archives in Moscow remain firmly closed) it remains impossible to verify whether Mitrokhin did indeed copy information from FCD files and, if he did, whether he did so accurately. However, his notes were accepted as authentic by Britain’s SIS and other Western intelligence agencies. Secondly, information recorded in the notes matches information known from other sources which it is highly unlikely Mitrokhin would have had access to in Moscow in the 1970s and 1980s – or even after his move to Britain. Clearly Mitrokhin made a number of slips when he retyped his hand-written notes. Letters which in Russian handwriting are easily confused – such as ch and g, m and n, or n and k – are given wrongly at times. Moreover, years of birth in the files he notes often vary, though whether this is a KGB mistake or his mistake remains unknown.
While I believe Mitrokhin noted the information from the FCD files in good faith, errors do creep in. But it is important to note that he may not have had access to the full story on any named individual – people crop up in a wide range of different files covering different timeframes, and he did not have time to copy the entire archive – and he may have misunderstood a person’s role. Moreover, his at time sparse notes do not always allow for unambiguous reading.
Mitrokhin’s notes hop from one person to another and one location or time to another, with no guide as to how to interpret the information. He does not always state clearly if those listed with code or worknames were agents, trusted contacts, victims or public figures who were referred to in KGB internal documents by a codename. I have therefore tried to stick to what Mitrokhin wrote in his notes. If I have misunderstood, misinterpreted or mistranslated any reference, I apologise in advance and will endeavour to correct it. Please let me know.
The KGB archives Mitrokhin cited or referred to were in Russian, a language written in Cyrillic which lacks certain Armenian letters (especially h). In Russian the name Hovhannisyan is generally rendered Ovanisyan or Oganesyan. Names are also given in Russianised form, with a patronymic (father’s name), which most Armenians do not customarily use. I have produced a hybrid version, giving Armenian names and codenames in line with Armenian usage.
Some codenames are clearly of Russian origin, others of Armenian origin. If the words are close to the English equivalent I have used the English equivalent. If not, I have included both, separated by /.
It is important to stress that the same codename was often assigned to many different individuals. In Mitrokhin’s notes on Armenians, several “Patriots”, “Armens” or “Nonas” appear which are clearly different people. Moreover, over a long KGB career an individual agent might have several successive codenames. In the listing below I have only combined several different references if I was almost entirely sure the information related to one individual. It is also possible several references listed separately below relate to one individual.
What do we learn from Mitrokhin’s notes?
An initially surprising number of individuals who figure in Mitrokhin’s voluminous notes as KGB operatives, agents, trusted contacts or in other capacities are ethnic Armenians. Perhaps more of those mentioned are Armenian than of any other Soviet nationality.
However, it is important to note that Armenians were not solely a Soviet nationality. Although the titular nation of a Soviet republic (which was also the only titular Armenian political entity in the world), more than half the Armenian population were not from Soviet Armenia and were not Soviet citizens. And despite the Soviet dislike of allowing people to move freely into and out of the Soviet Union, a large number of ethnic Armenians did that, albeit not freely. Thus the KGB could exploit the wide geographic spread of the Armenian population, the links many had through residence or relatives to Soviet Armenia, diaspora Armenians’ residence in Soviet Armenia where recruitment was easier, and the widespread acceptance among Armenians (except among hardline members of the Dashnak party) that Soviet Armenian represented at least some kind of national homeland towards which loyalty was not necessarily wrong.
Of the ethnic Armenians I have located among likely KGB agents or trusted contacts Mitrokhin noted in KGB FCD files, almost all are diaspora Armenians. For those listed here whose provenance can be determined with some certainty, 101 are foreign-born (in Lebanon, Syria, Iran, Iraq, Egypt, the US, even China – probably Harbin), while just 11 appear to be Soviet-born. Complicating the situation further, many of the diaspora Armenians appear to have been recruited during periods of residence in Soviet Armenia (especially for study) or visits. Perhaps surprisingly, some were recruited among “repatriates”, diaspora Armenians encouraged to migrate to Soviet Armenia in the 1930s or, particularly, from 1947. Many repatriates struggled to be allowed to return to their countries of origin. For those KGB recruits among their number, it must have been difficult to balance sharing the widespread repatriates’ loathing of the Soviet system with a secret pledge to promote its interests as a KGB agent.
Mitrokhin’s notes, most of which appear to provide information compiled in the 1970s or early 1980s, reveal the widespread – though perhaps not indiscriminate – recruitment of Armenians of such a wide range of situations and positions. Barbers, chauffeurs, cleaners, garage owners, academics, scientists, diplomats, writers, journalists and business people were all regarded by the KGB as potentially useful recruits. The widespread geographical spread of the Armenian population allowed entrée to a wide variety of circles in many different countries. That a Moscow-based Armenian was a close relative of the last shah of Iran was a useful quirk of history that the KGB could not help exploiting.
The notes also make clear that many of the agents or trusted contacts worked directly to the Armenian KGB, not to the FCD or other parts of the central KGB structure in Moscow, even when based abroad. Although it was not unknown for the KGBs of other Soviet republics to have their own foreign-based agents or trusted contacts, these appear to havebeen few and far between. Thus a greater proportion of Armenian KGB energy and activity was directed towards a diaspora community than that of the KGB of any other Soviet republic. While many Soviet entities were actively seeking information in and on the Armenian diaspora – including the Soviet KGB, the Armenian KGB, the Soviet Foreign Ministry, the Armenian SSR Foreign Ministry, the Committee for Links with the Diaspora and the Committee for the Affairs of the Armenian Church – in some senses the Armenian KGB and the Soviet KGB were in competition to provide the best intelligence to submit to government and party bodies in Moscow and Yerevan.
Several of the ethnic Armenians Mitrokhin cited are well known. Among KGB operatives, Gevork Vartanyan was already well known for his alleged exploits in Iran in the 1940s. In particular, the cult around him claims that he was the leading force in thwarting a Nazi German conspiracy to assassinate Churchill, Stalin and Roosevelt at the Tehran conference of allied leaders in 1943. Mitrokhin’s notes that I have seen do not include this and merely note his 1941 arrest by Tehran police accused of murdering a Musavatist, a murder conducted on Soviet orders by one of his fellow operatives. Among KGB “trusted contacts” were the Lebanese-based writer Andranik Tsarukyan and Vahram Mavian, who worked for a while for the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation in Portugal.
A prominent non-Armenian with Armenian connections who was recruited by the KGB was the British scholar of Georgia and Armenia, David Marshall Lang. He was a consular official in the Iranian city of Tabriz in 1945 when – to his surprise – he met two Manchester-based Armenians on their way to the election of a new Catholicos in Echmiadzin, who emerged a week or two later. According to Mitrokhin’s notes, the KGB recruited Lang “on the basis of compromising materials” (unspecified) in December 1963. How much influence his KGB recruitment might have had on what he subsequently wrote remains unclear. His inaugural lecture as Professor of Caucasian Studies at the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) at London University, published in 1966 as Landmarks of Georgian Literature, is typical of his writing on the post-war Caucasus. The severe impact of Stalin’s purges is described bluntly, but the post-war period is portrayed as one where almost all the earlier government constraints have been set aside.
In the early 1970s, samizdat writings from Georgia about the corruption and moral decay of the Georgian Orthodox Church leadership began to reach the West. Whether Lang’s curt dismissal in The Times in 1975 of these concerns, expressed by Georgian Orthodox laypeople, as “a Kremlin-inspired campaign to discredit the Orthodox Church of Soviet Georgia” was motivated by his own scepticism or the promptings of the KGB remains unknown.
While Mitrokhin’s notes concentrate quite largely on lists of KGB operatives, agents or trusted contacts, unfortunately he does not often recount what an individual might (or might not) have done for the KGB. He occasionally notes if an individual was recruited on the basis of ideological sympathy (whether for communism or for Soviet Armenia as the worldwide Armenian homeland), or for material gain. Some of the agents, even those who appear to have had ideological sympathy for Soviet Armenia, are recorded as having received at times substantial payments for their services. Occasionally Mitrokhin notes what an agent did for the KGB. Typically, such assistance consisted of maintaining a PO box for the KGB to use for illegals (Soviet citizens based in foreign countries masquerading as local people), providing intelligence on developments within the local Armenian community (particularly on the Dashnak party), providing intelligence on foreign employers (particularly embassies or government organisations), providing identity-related documents to allow the KGB to create identities for illegals, countering anti-Soviet views and identifying further potential KGB agent recruits.
The Counter-Intelligence Dictionary, a “top secret” work published in numbered copies by the KGB’s Dzerzhinsky Higher School in Moscow in 1972, describes how agents are recruited. It makes clear that – unless an individual is recruited under a “false flag” – the recruited agent knows perfectly well that they have been recruited by the KGB and have future obligations towards them. Articles on “trusted contacts” indicate that an individual may not necessarily know who they are providing information or other services to, even if they are broadly sympathetic to the Soviet Union. Objects of cultivation often did not know that the KGB believed it might be able to attempt their recruitment. Codenames were also allocated to well known public figures who had no direct contact with the KGB, including leading Western politicians. Moreover, codenames were also allocated to objects of interest. Mitrokhin notes that the US embassy in Beirut was given the codename Omut/Whirlpool”, while the British embassy was “Ovrag/Ravine”. The CIA was given the codename “Casino” in KGB communications from Lebanon.
It is important to stress that absence of a name in Mitrokhin’s notes does not necessarily indicate that any individual was not a KGB agent or trusted contact. Nor does Mitrokhin note the many Armenians inside the Soviet Union who were domestic KGB agents. Indeed, the FCD archive probably had little information about them unless they travelled abroad.
Given the deliberately oppressive nature of the Soviet political system, it is impossible to discern from Mitrokhin’s notes how willingly or unwillingly any individual agreed to cooperate with the KGB. But given the power the Soviet authorities had over individuals under their control (even diaspora Armenians were often beholden to the Soviet authorities in some way) it is impossible to conclude that individuals across the board had a free choice.
Equally impossible to discern from Mitrokhin’s notes is whether anyone was harmed by any of the cooperation with the KGB by these agents or trusted contacts. Only full access to the entire KGB archives would help towards that – and even then may not reveal the full truth.
In the listing below, worknames (for KGB operatives) or codenames for agents, trusted contacts and others are given thus: “Arsen”. References are to the file and page number in the Churchill Archives Centre classification. Gaps in the precise reference are where I failed to note the full reference. I have also not reproduced the information on Elizabeth Ghazarian, as this is given full coverage in Andrew and Mitrokhin’s first volume.
On 11 October 1944 [7 weeks after the ousting of Nazi forces from Paris] People’s Commissariat of State Security [KGB predecessor] approved plan of intelligence work in France. 18 October 1944, first operational letter of Paris residency set out tasks, including intelligence on government, domestic and foreign policy, political parties, and “state of Russian, Ukrainian, Armenian and Georgian emigration in France”. (MITN 1/9 1)
“The agent contingent of the counter-intelligence direction in 1962 was made up of 181 agents: 80 foreigners, 84 people without citizenship, 17 Soviet citizens. 55 worked on Russian émigrés, 23 on Ukrainian émigrés, 5 on Belorussian émigrés, 21 on Lithuanian, 16 on Latvian, 11 on Estonian, 17 on Armenian, 33 on other émigré communities. 39 worked on West Germany, 23 on the US, 21 on France, 13 on England, 10 on Lebanon, 11 on Belgium and 11 on Austria.” (MITN 2/2 5)
“In the Armenian SSR a large group of Soviet citizens were sentenced for attempting to betray the country. These citizens arrived in the Soviet Union in 1947 from Syria, and adopted Soviet citizenship, but, having encountered material difficulties here, decided to return to Syria. A group of 39 Armenians, together with their families, including 20 children, tried to cross the border secretly but were detained. It was a group offence, committed with direct intention.” (MITN 1/7 157)
“On the morning of 11 August 1962, in area 6 of post 12 of the border unit of the Azerbaijani district, four people in a lorry smashed through the wire fences and entered the Arax river along the border and, abandoning their vehicle, hid on Iranian territory. They were Armenians who had resettled in Armenia from France and Lebanon, including agent “Sarkisyan”, Mazmanyan, born 1927, as well as Apetyan, who was under cultivation by the Lithuanian KGB. On arrival in Armenia, Apetyan was quickly disappointed with Soviet reality and sought a way to flee to the West. Agents “Sarkisyan” and “Leon” were brought in to cultivate him [as a potential agent]. In 1960 Avetyan sent [French President Charles] de Gaulle a petition from repatriates asking to raise with the Soviet authorities the question of their return to France. “Sarkisyan”, deceiving the [KGB] organs, entered into a conspiracy with Apetyan. In 1954-6, he was being trained by the intelligence staff of the Black Sea Fleet for work abroad. Over the period of cooperation, ie. from 1957, he received more than 7,000 roubles in remuneration from the organs. This group studied the border regime, and the driver of the vehicle had access to the border zone. At a meeting on 24 July 1962 with [KGB] operative Nigaryan, “Sarkisyan” assured him – to lull the organs’ vigilance – that as a result of his influence Apetyan had renounced treacherous plots.” (MITN 1/2 100)
In Paris an American of Armenian origin worked in the US embassy. Identified via relatives in Armenia. (MITN 1/6/6 539)
Article in “Sbornik KGB SSSR” [secret KGB internal journal] on work against “ideological centres of the adversary”. “In Armenia a group arose among the youth which covered its activity with calls to deepen the resolution of the national question in the USSR, but in reality they are promoting the policy of the Dashnaks.” (MITN 1/7 233)
In October 1970, National Front for the Liberation of Palestine kidnapped an American, Avedis Derounian [1909-1991], in Lebanon on suspicion of links with the CIA. He was held for several days in refugee camp in Tripoli before he managed to escape, seeking refuge in the US embassy. After he was seized, the US embassy had appealed to Lebanese president Suleiman Frangieh for help in freeing Derounian from Palestinian kidnappers. Used pseudonym John Roy Carlson. Published in New York Times and Daily Review, also published pro-Zionist and anti-Arab books. Had “visited socialist countries”. “Taken from him when he was kidnapped were manuscript and printed texts, addresses, letters, photos, a report of a trip on the Soviet vessel Ukraina in August 1970, two passports and cards for various clubs in the name of Arthur Decker. All this and much more was handed to the KGB for use against the Main Adversary [the US].” (MITN 1/6/6 610 z)
In January 1976, agent “Gregor” informed KGB London residency that Suren Harutyunyan, a dancer with an Armenian dance troupe, “voluntarily chose not to return to USSR, but afterwards repented, but feared punishment”. “Gregor” proposed that Harutyunyan could be “as if kidnapped at the airport by the English and taken away, allowing him to be persuaded and taken to the Soviet embassy”. “The residency declared that this circumstance should be used for propaganda purposes and to show the provocative acts of the English authorities. The true state of affairs was not reported to the ambassador.” (MITN 1/7 121)
In 1978, Armenian KGB had 49 foreign citizen agents abroad. (MITN 1/7 130) The annual report for the Geneva KGB residency for 1978 noted that the “recruitment pool” in Geneva consisted of 147 international organisations, 125 diplomatic missions, various firms and institutes, a 4,000-strong American community, 300 Chinese and 400 Armenians. (MITN 2/11/2 113)
Ethnic Armenian KGB officers
- S. Ashjyan. KGB officer or agent, Iran. (MITN 1/2 74)
Boris Rubenovich Asoyan, born 1949, KGB officer, of 9 th Department [Anglophone Africa] of First Chief Directorate, worked undercover in Kampala, Uganda, 1973-8 as correspondent of Novoe Vremya. (MITN 2/24 19)
Eduard Babkenovich Charchyan (“Zenon”), born 1938. KGB officer. Assigned to First Chief Directorate residency in Nigeria 1977-81. Second secretary of USSR embassy. “His basic operational task was work on the Main Adversary [US] and penetration of the chancellery of the head of state.” (MITN 2/11/2 92)
Ashot Abgarovich Hakopyan (“Yefrat/Euphrates”), born 1915, Baku. KGB officer and illegal. Adopted the identity of Oganes Sarajyan, born 9 May 1916, ?Layseri [Kayseri], Ottoman Empire. Sarajyan had migrated to USSR from Romania. Using doctored documents (his photo had been exchanged in passport for Sarajyan’s), Hakopyan moved in 1949 to Romania. There in June 1949, he received a French passport (valid until 24 May 1950) from French consulate in Bucharest as a Lebanese. On 25 September 1949 had wedding in a Romanian church to his wife Tanya (also an illegal). Former royal lawyer I. Bumbacila (or Bumba) was witness and chauffeur at wedding. Newly-weds lodged with Bumbacila and his wife. Late that year, couple moved from Romania to Switzerland, then Italy. Hakopyan then received Lebanese passport, which was extended several times by counsellor of Lebanese embassy in Vienna, Edmond Donato. From 1949-59, Efrat headed illegal KGB residency in Italy. In 1964, via Donato, Hakopyan was able to obtain documents for KGB reservist “Belyakova” as his alleged adopted daughter. Donato suggested to Hakopyan to obtain position as Lebanon’s honorary consul and trade representative in Bulgaria, Romania and Hungary. “In USSR, Yefrat was used by the KGB Second Chief Directorate [counter-intelligence] as a foreigner.” (MITN 2/8 2, 2/8 58)
- R. Hojayan, officer of KGB First Chief Directorate. (MITN 2/8 5)
- S. Hovsepyan. Consular Department. KGB officer or agent, Iran. (MITN 1/2 74)
- A. Ivanyan, officer of KGB First Chief Directorate (MITN 2/11/2 c. 75)
Valeri Khachaturovich Kazaryan (“Samsonov”), KGB officer, in Beirut KGB residency May 1978 (arrived after 1976), under cover with Medexport. (MITN 2/24 69) K. Khachaturov, KGB officer, 1969-71 worked in KGB residency in Syria, representing Line V. In 1972-4, sent for short term assignments by Line F [special actions] to Iraq, Lebanon and other near eastern countries. (MITN 2/24 4)
Aram Mikhailovich Muradov (“Leonid”), born 1951. Azerbaijani KGB officer or operative. “Engineer in Baku.” “Worked on Iranian line.” (MITN 1/2 75)
Gevork Andreevich Vartanyan (“Amir”), born 1924, Rostov-on- Don [died 2012]. From 1930-51 lived in Tabriz and Tehran, was an agent of MGB and Information Committee [KGB predecessors]. From 1942-9 was “actively used by the Tehran residency for action relating to Dashnaks, Musavatists [Azerbaijani national party], shadowing Germans and English, and capturing and kidnapping individuals, including Soviet citizens. In 1941, Amir was detained by Tehran police on suspicion of murdering an active Musavatist, but was freed because of lack of evidence. The murder had been carried out by another agent, a colleague of Amir, on the instruction of Soviet intelligence.” (MITN 1/2 27)
Ethnic Armenian agents, trusted contacts and others, by name Harutyun Grantovich Abartyan (“Anvakh/Fearless”), born 1933, Lebanon. Lives in Lebanon. KGB recruited as agent. Information as of 1973. (MITN 2/7 41)
Abram Solomonovich Abramyan (“Mars”), born 1953, Syria. Moved with his family to Armenia, but moved to Lebanon in 1973. KGB recruited in May 1974, giving him the assignment of moving to US for study and “getting close to” the Armenian nationalist community. With help from Dashnak organisations Ancha, and the American Committee for help to Homeless Armenians moved to US. To help in establishing him there, KGB residency in Beirut sent him 1,000 dollars in instalments using a Beirut PO box run by Hrair Tossupian. But Abramyan sent no information. The KGB summoned him to Beirut for explanations, but the educational work yielded no results. He did not come to New York for meetings. (MITN 1/6/6 548)
Manvel Hakopovich Adamyan (“Simon”), born 1932, Lebanon. KGB recruited as agent. Information as of 1976. (MITN 2/7 41)
George Adomian (“Aram”), born 1922, Buffalo, New York. US citizen. PhD, Head of Maths Department, University of Georgia, specialist in applied mathematics and mechanics. Cultivated by Armenian KGB from 1971, recruited in 1974 or 1975. Met KGB in Bucharest in August 1975, Belgium in 1976. KGB operative A. G. Azaryan met him. (MITN 1/6/6 518,1/6/6 527, 1/6/6 574)
Albert Martiros Aleksan (“Ashur”), born 1943, Kirkuk. Iraqi citizen. Mechanical engineer in Iraqi oil company. KGB recruited in 1974. “In 1975, by decision of the First Chief Directorate, agent-operational work among local citizens was temporarily halted because of the difficulty of the operational situation.” (MITN 2/8 24)
Krikor Almanyan (“Moryak/Sailor”), born 1933, Alexandretta, Turkey. Citizen of Lebanon, lives in Beirut. Co-owner of metal casting business. KGB recruited in 1974. “Information came in on Dashnaks, contraband, used for PO box. Using his information, entry was blocked to USSR by Sertak Kalayjyan, born 1926, Lebanese citizen, for speculative export from USSR of contraband goods.” As of 1979, in contact with [KGB officers] V. A. Kosarik and A. A. Kobets. (MITN 2/15 133)
Nador (Nak) Dikranovich Altounian (“Aras”), born 2 May 1946, Beirut. Lebanese citizen. Graduated from American University, Beirut. Maths teacher, employee of airline. KGB recruited in 1974, he later moved to US. In 1977 lived in Hollywood. His brother Vakha lived in Montebello, California. (MITN 1/6/6 537)
Hermine Anania [?Ananian] (“Nona”), born 1934, Jerusalem. Jordanian citizen. Works in Kuwait as secretary to honorary consul of Cyprus to Kuwait. In contact with 2 nd Department of Directorate S [illegals]. (MITN 2/15 109) Andonyan (“Arl”). French businessman. “Sold embargoed goods to USSR”. Armenian KGB recruited. (MITN 2/15 5)
Karo Byuzandovich Arevyan or Aravyan (“Ispench”), born 1936, Syria or Lebanon. Flight engineer on Middle East Airlines. KGB recruited in 1974. Based in Lebanon (MITN 2/7 ??, 2/15 43)
Stefan Kegham Arzumanyan (“Alik”), born 11 November 1944, Beirut, Lebanese citizen. Automotive engineer, lived in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. In 1972 was in Ghana. According to 1983 information, was under 7 th Department of S Directorate [illegals]. (MITN 2/13 118) Asaturyan, head of health department, agent of Leningrad KGB. Used to cultivate Colombian vice-consul to Los Angeles, in Leningrad December 1978 to April 1979 for daughter’s medical treatment. (MITN 1/6/6 585)
Serop Khachatur Astur or Astor (“Sarukhan”, “Artavazd”), born 1948, Al-Qamishli, Syria. Syrian citizen. Member of Syrian Communist Party. Has relatives in Syria and US. Student in Armenia 1969-76. Student of 5 th year of construction faculty of Yerevan polytechnic institute as of 1976. “In 1972, trusted relations were established with him, he gave information on the mood among students from Arab countries. Recruited in 1976 with the prospect of being sent to the US or Canada, where he has relatives. Sent to France to establish the possibilities of getting work there as an intermediary country with subsequent transfer to US. “Artavazd” failed to gain a foothold in France, and it was therefore decided to use him on Line N against Saudi Arabia. Went to Kuwait, but was unable to establish useful acquaintances having entry to Saudi Arabia. Rented a PO box, considered conducting a combination on the “Gerty” case. In May 1979, “Artavazd” unmasked himself to his friends as having special relations with Soviet representatives. Transferred to a conservation regime. In contact with [KGB officers] A. A. Kobets, S. L. Artamonova, and at the Centre [FCD, Moscow] Piskunov.” As of 1976, “being prepared for S Directorate [illegals] of First Chief Directorate, handed over to them.” Among those Armenian KGB selected in 1974 “for work in overseas circumstances”. (MITN 1/6/6 610 o, 1/7 129, 2/2 52, 2/7 ??, 2/15 39) Hakop Petros Avakyan (“Erjanin”), born 1937, Iran or Iraq. KGB recruited. Information from 1973. MITN 2/7 ??)
Joe Avetum (“Joan”, later “Aragats”), born 1924, Calcutta. British citizen, living in London. Head of a team in British Airways. KGB made contact in 1972, recruited in 1976 in Armenia “on a patriotic basis”. Maintained contact with KGB London residency 1978-80, “provided technical documentation on nodes of aviation plans [??] of American and Swedish manufacture. Information came in of possible falling under the scrutiny of the special services.” (MITN 1/7 125, 1/7 129)
Serop Bagratovich Azatyan, name in passport Serop Bago Aziz (“Mutanabi”), born 1948, Al-Qamishli, Syria. Graduated in 1975 from Yerevan Medical Institute. KGB recruited. Lives in Al-Qamishli, Syria. (MITN 2/15 43)
Grigor Arakelovich Bagdaryan (“Arutyunov”), born 1927, France. Armenian KGB recruited in 1956. Sent to France in 1974. (MITN 2/7 3, 2/7 8)
Azniv Asaturovna Baladouni (“Anaid”), born 1922 or 1932, Cyprus. Lives in Cyprus. British citizen. Teacher in Narek Armenian school, Cyprus. KGB recruited as agent in 1976. Information as of 1976. (MITN 1/7 129, 2/7 41)
Eddie Gragevich Beheneslyan (“Prince”), born 1946, Ethiopia. Lives in US. Trusted contact of Armenian KGB from 1974. (MITN 1/6/6 518)
Abram Sarkisovich Boyajian (“Hovsep”), born 1941, Syria. KGB recruited in 1975. (MITN 2/741)
Aramazd Chizmeyan (“Guram”), born 1939, Santa Lucia, Uruguay. Former owner of Vanguardia-42 radio station in Montevideo. “The radio station is used by communists.” KGB recruited in 1973. In 1975, radio station was closed for links with Tupomaros [left-wing guerrilla group]. “”Guram” lost intelligence possibilities. Contacts were cut off in 1976.” (MITN 2/15 54)
Garbis Deiprmenjyan (“Kurer/Courier”), born 1953, Beirut. Worked as bookkeeper in private company, Beirut. KGB residency cultivated him from 1977. Recruited in 1980 by KGB agent “Magistr” [Bishop Knel Jerejian]. Involved in plot with Magistr to deceive KGB in 1981, claiming US special services wished to recruit. “Residency went through troubled times over “Courier”’s conduct and truthfulness.” (MITN 1/7 21-2, 2/14/1 118)
Hovik Hovhanes Etyan (“Novo”), born 1913, Russian Empire. Lives in US. Trusted contact of Armenian KGB from 1973. (MITN 1/6/6 518)
Vahan Nazarovich Galfayan (“Garry”), born 1935, Canada. Lives in Argentina. Trusted contact of Armenian KGB. Information from 1976. (MITN 2/7 40)
Harutyun Sarkisovich Gasparyan (“Sos”), born 1930, Athens. KGB recruited in Armenia. Allowed to leave for US 1964. In 1968 his wife received an inheritance. They lived in Los Angeles. He ran a car workshop as of 1970. (MITN 1/6/6 519)
Elizabeth Aghasapet Ghazarian (“Zolushka/Cinderella”, also “Khrabry/Brave”) (MITN 1/7 21, 2/24 58, 2/24 70) [see Andrew and Mitrokhin, Vol. 1, pp. 442-5.]
Haik Grigoryan (“Aragats”), born 1924. British citizen. Car mechanic in London. KGB recruited in Armenia in 1976. (MITN 1/7 129)
Harutyun David Guloyan (“Tadeh”), born 1933, Iran. Iranian citizen. Barber in Tehran. Armenian KGB agent 1970-80. (MITN 1/2 67, 1/2 104)
Ararat Shavarshovich Hakopyan (“Arshak”), born 1951. 4th year student of Kurdish section of Oriental studies department of Yerevan State University. Among those Armenian KGB selected in 1974 “for work in overseas circumstances”. (MITN 2/15 39)
Nubar Misakovich Hakopyan (Hakopchikyan) (“Aleksandr”), born 1928, Sanjak, Turkey. Citizen of Turkey. Teacher. From 1976 in US. KGB recruited in 1964. In Lebanon in 1971, under cover of buying defence equipment for his firm, handed the KGB an American-produced signals system. Rented a PO box for the KGB in Beirut. KGB residency renewed contact with him in San Francisco in 1978. (MITN 1/6/6 595)
Ruben Abramovich Hakopyan (“Razmik”), born 1912, Maragheh, Persia. Driver. Brought from Iran to Soviet Union in (?)1959. (MITN 2/24 54)
Taguhi Oganesovna Hakopyan (“Margarita”), born 1929. Soviet citizen. KGB recruited. “In 1950-2, participated in special measures in relation to US embassy in Moscow. In 1952 she travelled to Vienna for a meeting with an employee of the US embassy working in Moscow.” She married in 1958. In 1973 visited Canada as part of a Georgian theatre group and Ministry of Culture. (MITN 1/6/7 621)
Vakhak Rubenovich Hakopyan (“Syn/Son”). KGB recruited 1961, sent to Austria under cover of studies, where in contact with Vienna KGB residency. (MITN 2/24 54)
Petros Haikovich Halajyan (“Mechanic”), born 1923, Alexandria. Egyptian citizen. Until 1967 headed workshop in US embassy in Cairo to repair radio and cinema equipment. KGB recruited “on grounds of patriotic attitude to Armenia”. Provided information on set-up, structure, work timetable and layout of embassy buildings. Sacked from embassy after Washington and Cairo broke diplomatic ties in 1967, “deprived of intelligence possibilities”. Disappeared from KGB view in 1970. (MITN 1/6/6 550-1)
Hakop Karapetovich Hanbelian (“Haik”), born 1945, Jerusalem. Trusted contact of Armenian KGB from 1972 in Israel. Information as of 1976. (MITN 2/7 40)
Margarita Pogosovna Hovhanesyan (“Meri/Mary”), born 1923, China. US citizen. KGB trusted contact. (MITN 1/6/6 538)
Sirak Varosovich Hovhannisyan (“Ashot”), born 1924 or 1925, Armenia. US citizen, lived in Montebello, California, near Los Angeles, in 1974. Worked in a tourist firm. KGB recruited in Armenia in 1967. (MITN 1/6/6 504, 1/6/6 558)
Karo Husseinjyan (“Skif/Scythian”), born 1919, Cairo. Lebanese citizen. Owner of jewellery shop, Beirut. KGB recruited in 1954. “Used as a postal address, field correspondence arrived from illegals Indor, Samson, Mary, Sokolov, Run, Bogun and Slava, and agent illegals Borisov, Artur, Karlos and Datt.” In February 1977 opened two jewellery shops in Saudi Arabia. “It was agreed with him to establish in his shop a KGB agent, but then he changed his mind, as it was a big risk. Firstly because field letters from the US from Bogun and Artur were opened and went missing, and in 1968 they [Bogun and Artur] were being cultivated by US special services, and secondly “Skif” maintained correspondence with the USSR and had been there.” In August 1980 moved to his children in the US. (MITN 1/6/7 640) John D. Iulian, also known as Onik Orapiryan (“Smith”), born 1926. British citizen, lived in Vienna 1968-75. Targeted for cultivation. (MITN 1/7 130)
Dicran Jamgochian (“Jack”), born 1938, Beirut. US citizen. Higher musical education. Trusted contact of Armenian KGB from 1975. Leader of choir, Washington, where he lived as of 1970. (MITN 1/6/6 518, 1/6/6 538, 1/6/6 577, ??)
Grigory Rafaelovich Kalamkarov (“Arutyunov”), born 1951, Moscow. Soviet citizen. Engineer, physicist, postgraduate at the Institute of Chemical Physics. KGB apparently recruited. “Informed on students”. Directorate S [illegals] studied him for use in OR [operational intelligence], in 1981, but he refused. (MITN 1/8 65)
Vardes Hpanosovich Karagezyan (“Markosyan”), born 1939, Turkey. KGB recruited as agent. Information as of 1965. (MITN 2/7 41)
Konsala Karavirt, also known as Mesrop Karapetyan (“Gurgen”), born 1948, Turkey. Trusted contact of Armenian KGB from 1972. Information from 1976. (MITN 2/7 40)
Mitchell Kehetian (“Keroyan” or “Karoyan”), born 1930, US. Lives in US. Chief editor of Macomb Daily newspaper, Detroit, as of 1972. Trusted contact of Armenian KGB from 1973. (MITN 1/6/6 518, 1/6/6 577)
Hovhannes Mushegovich Kendir or Kendiryan (“Egon”), born 1952, Istanbul. Turkish citizen. Chemical engineer, trained at Yerevan Polytechnic Institute. KGB recruited as agent. Information as of 1976. “Taken via Iran to the country of the Main Adversary [US].” (MITN 1/6/6 518, 1/7 129, 2/7 41)
Oganik Avstisovich Keshishyan (“Tsiatsan”), born 1948, Aleppo. KGB recruited as agent. Information as of 1976. (MITN 2/7 41)
Movses Keshkeryan (“Dar/Gift”), born 1933, Egypt. Canadian citizen. KGB recruited in 1958. KGB “used for identifying and disrupting Dashnak Armenian organisation in Egypt, paid 1,570 Egyptian pounds. In contact in Egypt with [KGB officers] I. N. [Illen Nikolaevich]
Petrovsky, S. A. Mikaelyan, V. M. Piskunov and N. A. Talanyan. In 1966 transferred to Canada, taught TS [technical methods], microfilming, codes and impersonal methods of communication. Allocated 9,036 Canadian dollars to establish himself. Rented a PO box for the Montreal [KGB] residency. In contact in Canada with Yu. S. Serpokrylov, I. N. Petrovsky and I. P. Vartanyan. In 1973 came under scrutiny by the Canadian special services.” (MITN 1/8 63)
Sarkis Keshkeryan or Kekeryan (“Nikogosyan”). Chauffer of British embassy, Cyprus, as of 1967. KGB recruited, apparently in 1966, via agent “Yanga”. (MITN 1/7 119, 1/7 122, 2/2 1)
Michael Kestikyan (“Kostan”), born 1928, US. Trusted contact of Armenian KGB from 1972. (MITN 1/6/6 518)
Verasdat Khachatur [Khajadur] (“Sirkhan”), born 1928, Iraq. Member of Iraqi communist party. Lives in Kuwait. Moved from Iraq to Kuwait in 1963 “because of Baathist persecution of communists”. KGB recruited in 1974 on a tip from Khachatur’s brother Ara (member of Iraqi communist party central committee, responsible for party security, based in “political emigration” in Czechoslovakia). From 1977, “Sirkhan” maintained a PO box in Salmi, Kuwait, whose address had been given to “special agents” “Galef” and “Radov”, both from Saudi Arabia, and illegal Akbar from Jordan and Iran. “A signal radio link existed between an operative of the residency and agent “Sirkhan”, with the signals being directed to technical equipment in the residency. The signal equipment was disguised in a car as a screwdriver. The PO box ceased to function in 1980 after a mishap with an agent to whom “Sirkhan”’s address had been given.” (MITN 2/15 111)
Armen Gurgenovich Khachaturyan (“Khachik”), born 1935, Moscow. Doctor of technical sciences. In 1978-9, trained at institute of crystallology in US. “In February 1980, the KGB operational/technical directorate received a registered letter from Israel addressed to Khachaturyan’s wife Svetlana Viktorovna Semenovskaya, a Ukrainian, with an invitation for her and her family to live in Israel. Contact with “Khachik” was cut off and work trips were severely restricted. A letter to his address is not allowed through, in case of a search by his foreign correspondent, the reply is to be given: “delivered”.” (MITN 1/6/7 649)
Sarkis Tumasovich ?Kioroglyan (“Veron”), suspected double agent of Italian security service and KGB, sometime between 1949 and 1965. (MITN 2/1 90)
Zaven Asaturovich Kirakosian (“Physicist”), born 1936. US citizen. Physicist, worked on Stanford linear accelerator. KGB recruited in Armenia in 1976. (MITN 1/6/6 566, 1/6/6 574)
Karapet Kojayan (“Rebrov”), born 1936, Beirut. Citizen and resident of Lebanon. Engineer. From 1959-65 had lived in England. Information as of 1979. (MITN 2/15 110)
Nazaret Seti Leon (“Selen”), born 1946, Damascus. Armenian KGB recruited in 1968. Based in France. (MITN 2/7 3)
Sarkis Karapetovich Lepedjyan (“Gevork”), born 1923. Head of a laboratory of Department of Ethnography, Royal Jordanian University. Chair of Vatani Armenian club in Jordan. KGB agent 1976-82. Came under scrutiny of special services of adversary. In contact with 3 rd Department of Directorate K [Counter-Intelligence]. (MITN 2/15 104)
Svetlana Yakovlevna Lianozova (“Jacqueline”), born 1939, Moscow. Her uncle [son from her paternal grandmother’s second marriage], Mehdi Bushehri, is married to the shah’s sister Ashraf. A friend of Ashraf’s and “welcome guest” of court grandees. KGB recruited in 1970 and “makes use of her possibilities”. KGB sent in January 1979 to Paris [Ashraf’s home] “to receive fresh news on the shah’s closest circle, Ashraf’s position in the Iranian ruling hierarchy, the shah’s family affairs, machinations, intrigues and financial machinations, the level of influence in the country, on the intimate links between Ashraf and the Iranian ambassador in London Parviz Raji, Golsorhi, Majid Rahnem, Zanage M., people at the disposal of the shah’s wife Farah, her intimate dispositions, relationship with the shah’s mother, and with Princess Ashraf. Jacqueline acquitted herself of her tasks highly successfully, and information on rumours that Khameini’s political advisor Salam is a KGB person.” Lianozova’s second husband was a KGB agent, based in the US as Pravda correspondent 1976-9. Her first husband had also been an agent, of Moscow and Moscow Region KGB. (MITN 1/2 92a)
Grigor Madikians (“March”), born 1927. Owner of Tehran hotels Naderi and New Naderi. KGB agent or trusted contact. (MITN 1/2 68) Vahakn Rubenovich Makhtesi-Hakopyants (“Matador”), born 1942. Iranian citizen. Lived in West Berlin. (MITN 1/2 70)
Robert-Kevork Maksudyan (“Patriot”), born 1943. US citizen. Maths teacher in New York school. Head of Armenian Youth Federation of USA. Recruited by Armenian KGB in September 1972, “but was afraid to retain conspiratorial ties in the US”. (MITN 1/6/6 524) Mkrtich Karapetovich Mantikyan (“Patriot”), born 1927, Plovdiv, Bulgaria. Chemical engineer. Agent of Armenian KGB since 1947. Sent to US in 1975. Works in chemical laboratory in Los Angeles. (MITN 1/6/6 518, 1/6/6 575)
Margarita Sirakovna Markaryan (“Rima”), born 1946, Yerevan. KGB recruited in 1971. Went with husband to live in Lebanon. (MITN 2/15 40)
Vahram Hakop Mavian (“Vram”), born 1926, Jerusalem [died 1983]. Lives in Portugal. Trusted contact of Armenian KGB. Information from 1976. (MITN 2/7 40)
Aleksandr Pavlovich Melikyan (“Samvel”), born 1951. Graduated from Veterinary Faculty of Yerevan Zoological Veterinary Institute. Among those Armenian KGB selected in 1974 “for work in overseas circumstances”. (MITN 2/15 39)
Khachatur Melkop, also known as Khachatur Melkonovich Hovhanesyan (“Dvin”), born 1938 or 1939, Syria. Syrian citizen. Probationer of Yerevan Polytechnic Institute. Armenian KGB recruited. (MITN 2/7 40, 23)
Aram Muradyan (“Mirdat”), born 1937, US. Trusted contact of KGB in US from 1971. (MITN 1/6/6 518)
Hakop Hambartsumovich (James) Nazaryan (“Arax”), born 1925, Jerusalem. US citizen, lived in New York. Owner of Arax Nova Travel Service. KGB recruited in 1963 or 1966. (MITN 1/6/6 547, 2/7 41)
Vachinan [?Vachinak] Shakhmirzaevich Ohanyan (“Orekhov”, later “Ernesto”), born 1939, Arak, Iran. Iranian citizen. Electrical engineer. Studied at Yerevan Polytechnic Institute. (MITN 1/2 70)
Samvel Movsesovich Ovasapyan or Ovasanyan [?Hovsepyan] (“Walter”), born 1941, Iran. Armenian KGB recruited in 1972. Based in West Berlin. Worked there for US company National Cash Register as of 1974. (MITN 1/2 70, 2/7 3)
Kliment Surenovich Palanjyan, born 1926, Algeria. Repatriate from France 1947, studied in Moscow at Foreign Languages Pedagogical Institute. Visited and telephoned French Embassy, Moscow. Recruited in 1949 but wriggled out of cooperation. In September 1956, using operational technology from West German (?) embassy, Moscow, conversation recorded in which Palanjyan surname mentioned. KGB renewed cultivation of him. Worked as Novosti Agency translator 1960-3. Tried and achieved getting permission to leave for Morocco, where still had relatives. (MITN 2/13 74)
Vanis Sarkisovich Palanjyan (“Ramkavar”), born 1944, Alexandria, Egypt. Egyptian citizen. Worked in the tourist firm Airs Travel and Shipping. KGB recruited in Armenia in 1971. “Used in the cultivation of Dashnaks.” “His contacts with the special services of the adversary are not excluded.” As of 1981, in contact with 3 rd Department of Directorate K [Counter-Intelligence]. (MITN 2/15 83)
Charles Papaz (“Paul”), born 1918, US. Lives in US. Trusted contact of KGB from 1970. (MITN 1/6/6 518)
Ojeni Osepovna Parsumyan (“Madlen/Madeleine”), born 1937. In contact with officer of KGB residency in Basra, Iraq, Mikhail Krishtanov (who worked in Basra 1973-8). (MITN 2/24 57)
Grant Paul (Ter-Stepanyan) (“Legrand”), born 1938. US citizen. Worked in the department of transport to create accumulators for electric cars. KGB trusted contact from 1976. (MITN 1/6/6 566)
Gegam Narsesovich Petrosyan (“Arev”), born 1946, Egypt. Armenian KGB recruited in 1974. Based in France. (MITN 2/7 3)
Garush Tsarunovich Pogosyan (“Petrosyan”), born 1939, Armenia. KGB recruited in 1969, transferred to US 1976. (MITN 1/6/6 518)
Hakop Hovhanesovich Sarafyan (“Varujan”), born 1932, Lebanon. KGB recruited as agent. Information as of 1975. (MITN 2/7 41)
Eduard Sarkisyan (“Hoshnud/Satisfied [in Persian]”, later “Nedovolny/Dissatisfied”). Head of the garage of US agency USIS in Iran. KGB recruited as agent or trusted contact. In 1976 in contact with Elm Ibragimovich Shamirov. (MITN 1/2 66)
Avetis Grigorevich Set-Agayan (“Armen”), born 1950, Tehran. Moved to Armenia in 1963. Among those Armenian KGB selected in 1974 “for work in overseas circumstances”. (MITN 2/15 39)
Tigran Hakopovich Tchrakian (“Akhuryan”), born 1942, Cairo. Egyptian citizen. Specialist on nuclear physics. Lived in London, taught at Dortmund University, West Germany. Later based in Ireland. Armenian KGB recruited in 1968 (or 1976). (MITN 1/7 123, 2/2 25, 2/7 3)
Vamk Ruben Ter-Minassian (“Moris”), born 1922, Yerevan. Based in France. Hydraulic engineer, employed by a French firm. Armenian KGB recruited in 1968 or 1969. “Hands over materials on design and construction of nuclear power stations.” (MITN 2/7 3)
Jerry Curtis Terzakian (“Gor”), born 1931, Alexandria, Egypt. Canadian citizen. In Guinea, 1976-8. KGB tried to cultivate. (MITN 1/8 58)
Haik Tovmasyan (“Henry”), born 1948, Aleppo. Armenian KGB recruited in 1974. Based in Canada. (MITN 2/7 3)
Andranik Torosovich Tsarukyan (“Garnik”), born 1913, Turkey [died 1989]. Lives in Lebanon. Trusted contact of Armenian KGB. Information from 1976. (MITN 2/7 40) Erem Tulukyan (“Sarkis”), born 1921, US. Agent of Armenian KGB from 1974. (MITN 1/6/6 518)
Gevond Vartanovich Vartanyan (“Samvel”), born 1945, Beirut. Lebanese citizen. Moved to Armenia in 1960 to study at Echmiadzin seminary. Studied at Yerevan Medical Institute 1966-72. In 1973 left for US. (MITN 1/6/6 538, 1/6/6 560)
Eduard Leonovich Vartumyan (“Nikolaev”), born 1929. Soviet citizen. Head of TASS economics department, London, from 1967-73. (MITN 1/7 131)
Sedrak Hovhanes Vrej (“Komitas”), born 1934, Syria. Based in Iraq. KGB recruited as agent. Information as of 1970. (MITN 2/7 41)
?? Semyonovich Yeghiazarian (“Veuni”), born 1924, Iran. US citizen. Construction engineer. KGB recruited in Armenia in 1963. Sent to US in 1970 by means of emigration with intelligence assignments. KGB New York residency maintained contact with him from 1972-4, but he had no intelligence possibilities. In 1975 bought a flat in New York, worked for scientific research institute designing nuclear and hydropower stations. Elected vice-chair of Iranian-Armenian Society of New York. “According to his sister, her brother always was and remains heart and soul with Armenia and will do everything in his power for it.” (MITN 1/6/6 575, 1/6/6 610 f)
Ethnic Armenian agents, trusted contacts and others, by codename “Ali”. Lebanese citizen. Teacher at Melkonyan institute, Cyprus. KGB agent. (MITN 2/2 1) “Ali”, born 1932, Nicosia. KGB “recruited in 1966 on an ideological basis for cultivation of Dashnak organisations in Cyprus. From 1970-3 was used as a postal address “in darkness” for documents for operatives of the “Mark” special reserve, as a result in the process of legalising Mark correspondence from third countries was sent to “Ali”’s postal address for Mark. In 1974 “Ali”’s address was given to “Francisco”, an agent/illegal, and in 1979 to intelligence operative/illegal “Konrad”. In 1980 “Konrad” was arrested by Western special services. In 1980-1, letters did not arrive at “Ali”’s PO box. Information from 7 th Department of Directorate S.” (MITN 2/6/1 c38)
“Ani” or “Api”, born 1926. US citizen. Specialist on molecular biology and genetics. Head of University department, as of 1977. KGB trusted contact. (MITN 1/6/6 574)
“Armen”, born 1933. Swiss citizen. Doctor and therapist, with private clinic in Geneva. Under Armenian KGB. (MITN 2/8 24)
“Azniv”. Syrian citizen. School head, then employee of car sales firm, Limassol. KGB recruited in 1968. (MITN 2/2 1)
“Badalyan”, born 1951, Egypt. Head of Boghosian Armenian school, Alexandria, Egypt. Armenian KGB recruited in 1977 “on a national/patriotic basis”. (MITN 2/8 23, 2/8 24)
“Charlotte”, born 1932. British citizen. Secretary/economist of radio station as of 1978. KGB trusted contact. (MITN 1/7 130)
“Fakir”, later “Vir”, born 1918, Denver, Colorado. Strongly anti-Soviet, “pathologically hostile to the USSR and communist ideology”. Leads a department working against Soviet institutions. “Works against Soviet citizens, particularly of Armenian origin.” (MITN 2/24 76)
“Gayane”, born 1944, Yerevan. Lebanese citizen. Teacher at Armenian school, Beirut. Wife of agent “Simon” of Beirut KGB residency. (MITN 2/8 24)
“Gevork”. KGB recruited via deputy resident for counter-intelligence of Amman KGB residency, Boris. (MITN 2/15 57)
“Grow”, born 1924. US Armenian of Turkish origin. US citizen. President of firms Satra and Grand Gehry Inc. Carried out six assignments from the military industrial complex related to aviation, rockets and shipbuilding. Reported about cultivation by the FBI agent of V. Azaryan of the New York KGB residency. Through him, active measures were undertaken in the area of trade, oil supply etc, according to a 1970 report. Worked for KGB on materialistic motivation. KGB officer Rodichev worked with him. (MITN 1/6/6 526)
“Haik”, later “David”. Citizen of Israel. Graduated in 1971 from Yerevan Polytechnic Institute. Armenian KGB recruited in Yerevan. (MITN 2/6/1 40)
“Hovsep”, born 1945. Syrian citizen of Armenian background. Graduated from Yerevan Polytechnic Institute. KGB recruited in 1975 and then sent to US that year. (MITN 1/6/6 518, 1/6/6 575, 1/6/6 577)
“Loris”. British citizen. Worked in control department of military supplies in Cyprus. KGB recruited in 1970. (MITN 1/7 122, 2/2 2)
“Magistr”, born 1949. Syrian citizen. Electronic engineer. Graduated from Yerevan Polytechnic Institute in 1975. Armenian KGB prepared him for work in Canada. (MITN 1/8 56)
“Mareh”. “Active figure in Armenian cultural educational organisation.” KGB recruited in USSR in 1972. In contact with KGB New York residency. “Worked on Armenians.” (MITN 1/6/6 610 f)
“Markosyan”. Armenian KGB recruited. Based in France. (MITN 2/7 3)
“Mher”, born 1954, Syria. Lebanese citizen. Graduated from Philological Faculty, Yerevan State University. Employee of Zartonk newspaper of Ramkavar party in Lebanon. Under Armenian KGB. (MITN 2/8 23)
“Nona”. Citizen of the United Arab Republic [Egypt and Syria]. She was inserted into Egyptian counter-intelligence. (MITN 2/2 4)
“Nubar”, born 1937, ?Iran. Composer and conductor. Close to Iranian shah’s court. As of 1978, lived in England. (MITN 1/2 70)
“Petrosyan”, born 1939. Pilot. Moved from USSR to US in 1976 by means of re-emigration. (MITN 1/6/6 574)
“Pevets/Singer”, born 1937. Citizen of Cyprus. (MITN 2/6/1 39)
“Ricardo”, born 1937. Secretary of cultural union of progressive Armenians of Argentina. Editor of Sevan newspaper. Employee of tour firm Turismo Mundial in Buenos Aires. Armenian KGB recruited in 1977. (MITN 2/8 23)
“Ruben”, born 1922. Apparently Armenian. Teacher. Sent to US for settlement by means of re-emigration. (MITN 1/6/6 574)
“Samvel”, born 1945. Lebanese citizen, lived in US. As of 1978, agent of Armenian KGB. (MITN 1/6/6 509)
“Sarkis”, born 1920. US citizen. Physicist/heating engineer, director of a research institute. KGB recruited 1974 (apparently in Armenia). (MITN 1/6/6 574)
“Semyon”, born 1943. Electrical engineer. French citizen. Worked in design and construction firm in Paris. Under Armenian KGB. (MITN 2/8 24)
“Simon”, born 1950. Syrian citizen. Doctor and therapist. Trained at Yerevan Medical Institute. (MITN 2/8 24)
“Stella”, born 1953. Eastern studies expert. Wife of KGB agent “Armen”. Husband and wife agents in Beirut. Under Armenian KGB. (MITN 2/8 23)
“Tigran”. In Cairo had photo studio. KGB recruited in Egypt “on a patriotic basis”. Moved to Canada, where KGB work with him was renewed in May 1974. Apparently maintained a PO box, apparently in Montreal. Worked as a shop assistant. (MITN 1/8 60)
“Tod”, born 1950. Iranian citizen. Lived in England as of 1977. Physicist, worked on doctoral dissertation, Bedford College, University of London. Moved to USSR, where officer V. A. Melnik of Armenian KGB recruited, apparently in Yerevan. Maintained contact through deadletter drops in Paris. In contact with KGB London residency from ?1976. (MITN 1/7 123, 1/7 130, 2/2 24)
“Vage” or “Vahe”, born 1948. Syrian citizen. Doctor and therapist. Under Armenian KGB. (MITN 2/8 24)
“Vazgen”, born 1950. Jordanian citizen. 6 th year student of Yerevan Medical Institute. Armenian KGB recruited. (MITN 2/8 23)
“Zahra”. Worked in Canadian embassy in Cairo. Trusted contact of Bulgarian special services as of ?1975. (MITN 1/8 58)
Non-ethnic Armenian KGB agents, trusted contacts or objects of cultivation Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Artyukh (“Dmitry”), born 1946, Poltava Region, Ukraine. Among those Armenian KGB selected in 1974 “for work in overseas circumstances”. (MITN 2/15 39)
Yukia Kimuro (“Kito”), born 1929, Japan. Trusted contact of Armenian KGB from 1973. Information from 1976. (MITN 2/7 40)
David Marshall Lang (“Jim”, “Ars”), born 1924, England [died 1991]. British citizen. Until 1944 was an operative of English counter-intelligence. Professor of School of Oriental and African Studies, London University, honorary secretary of Royal Asiatic Society. “Recruited by Service 2 [foreign counter-intelligence] of First Chief Directorate together with Second Chief Directorate [counter-intelligence] in December 1963 on the basis of compromising materials.” (MITN 1/7 128, 1/7 129)
Mikhail [Michael] R. Seligman (“Sig”), general director of travel firm Travel Bureau in Los Angeles. KGB recruited in 1961 in Armenia. (MITN 1/6/6 558)
Jonathan Steele, born 1941. British journalist from the Guardian. “Anti-Soviet inclined, covered life in USSR and policy of government tendentiously”. KGB tried to cultivate. In June 1973, met the artist Eduard Khachikovich Melkonyan, living in Yerevan. (MITN 1/7 121)
Felix Corley is the editor of Forum 18 News Service, an agency monitoring religious freedom in the former Soviet republics and Eastern Europe